Earth Imaging Journal: Remote Sensing, Satellite Images, Satellite Imagery
Breaking News
Maptitude Team Provides Sponsorship for MGGG Geometry of Redistricting Workshops
NEWTON, MASSACHUSETTS (USA) - The Metric Geometry and Gerrymandering...
2017 South Australian Spatial Excellence Awards Winners Announced
The 2017 Asia Pacific Spatial Excellence Awards South Australia...
Cartegraph and CycloMedia Partner to Deliver Timely, Objective Asset Data to the Public Sector
Cartegraph, a leader in high-performance government software and services,...
Formal Partnership of HeiGIT/GIScience Heidelberg with Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT) Announced
Today HeiGIT/GIScience Research Group Heidelberg and the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap...
ArcGIS Experts, GEO Jobe, Celebrates 18 Years in GIS Software Development, Services, UAV Mapping
Established in 1999, GEO Jobe is pleased to be...

On Aug. 22, 2013, the Landsat 8 satellite captured this view of the lake in East Java, Indonesia. The turquoise color comes from the range of materials dissolved in the water, including hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. The craters of several other volcanoes are also visible within the 20-kilometer-wide (12-mile) Ijen caldera.

On Aug. 22, 2013, the Landsat 8 satellite captured this view of the lake in East Java, Indonesia. The turquoise color comes from the range of materials dissolved in the water, including hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. The craters of several other volcanoes are also visible within the 20-kilometer-wide (12-mile) Ijen caldera.

The turquoise lake in the crater of the Kawah Ijen volcano looks serene and inviting. It also happens to be the world’s largest acidic lake. The water in the crater lake has a pH less than 0.3 on a scale of 0 to 14 (7 is neutral). For comparison, lemon juice has a pH of 2; battery acid has a pH of 1. That acidity affects the chemistry of nearby river ecosystems, including the river Banyupahit.

Originating at the lake, the Banyupahit delivers acidic water to populated areas downstream. According to a 2005 research paper, the river water that local farmers use to irrigate crops has a pH between 2.5 and 3.5. The normal range for stream water, according to the U.S. Geological Survey, is between about 6 and 8.

The plume drifting west from the crater likely comes from fumaroles, which release hot gases from underground magma. The plume could also come from hot springs and mud pots, according to Erik Klemetti, a volcanologist at Denison University. “The plume is white, so it is likely mostly steam with some other volcanic gases like carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide mixed in.”

Image courtesy of NASA.

Read the full story.

Comments are closed.